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Emitting Responses with Diactoros

When writing middleware-based applications, at some point you will need to emit
your response

PSR-7 defines the various interfaces
related to HTTP messages, but does not define how they will be used.
Diactoros defines several
utility classes for these purposes, including a ServerRequestFactory for
generating a ServerRequest instance from the PHP SAPI in use, and a set of
emitters, for emitting responses back to the client. In this post, we’ll
detail the purpose of emitters, the emitters shipped with Diactoros, and some
strategies for emitting content to your users.

What is an emitter?

In vanilla PHP applications, you might call one or more of the following
functions in order to provide a response to your client:

  • http_response_code() for emitting the HTTP response code to use; this must
    be called before any output is emitted.
  • header() for emitting response headers. Like http_response_code(), this
    must be called before any output is emitted. It may be called multiple times,
    in order to set multiple headers.
  • echo(), printf(), var_dump(), and var_export() will each emit output
    to the current output buffer, or, if none is present, directly to the client.

One aspect PSR-7 aims to resolve is the ability to generate a response
piece-meal, including adding content and headers in whatever order your
application requires. To accomplish this, it provides a ResponseInterface with
which your application interacts, and which aggregates the response status code,
its headers, and all content.

Once you have a complete response, however, you need to emit it.

Diactoros provides emitters to solve this problem. Emitters all implement

namespace ZendDiactorosResponse;

use PsrHttpMessageResponseInterface;

interface EmitterInterface
     * Emit a response.
     * Emits a response, including status line, headers, and the message body,
     * according to the environment.
     * Implementations of this method may be written in such a way as to have
     * side effects, such as usage of header() or pushing output to the
     * output buffer.
     * Implementations MAY raise exceptions if they are unable to emit the
     * response; e.g., if headers have already been sent.
     * @param ResponseInterface $response
    public function emit(ResponseInterface $response);

Diactoros provides two emitter implementations, both geared towards standard PHP
SAPI implementations:

  • ZendDiactorosEmitterSapiEmitter
  • ZendDiactorosEmitterSapiStreamEmitter

Internally, they operate very similarly: they emit the response status code, all
headers, and the response body content. Prior to doing so, however, they check
for the following conditions:

  • Headers have not yet been sent.
  • If any output buffers exist, no content is present.

If either of these conditions is not true, the emitters raise an exception.
This is done to ensure that consistent content can be emitted; mixing PSR-7 and
global output leads to unexpected and inconsistent results. If you are using
middleware, use things like the error log, loggers, etc. if you want to debug,
instead of mixing strategies.

Emitting files

As noted above, one of the two emitters is the SapiStreamEmitter. The normal
SapiEmitter emits the response body at once via a single echo statement.
This works for most general markup and JSON payloads, but when returning files
(for example, when providing file downloads via your application), this strategy
can quickly exhaust the amount of memory PHP is allowed to consume.

The SapiStreamEmitter is designed to answer the problem of file downloads. It
emits a chunk at a time (8192 bytes by default). While this can mean a bit more
performance overhead when emitting a large file, as you’ll have more method
calls, it also leads to reduced memory overhead, as less content is in memory
at any given time.

The SapiStreamEmitter has another important feature, however: it allows
sending content ranges.

Clients can opt-in to receiving small chunks of a file at a time. While this
means more network calls, it can also help prevent corruption of large files by
allowing the client to re-try failed requests in order to stitch together the
full file. Doing so also allows providing progress status, or even buffering
streaming content.

When requesting content ranges, the client will pass a Range header:

Range: bytes=1024-2047

It is up to the server then to detect such a header and return the requested
range. Servers indicate that they are doing so by responding with a Content-Range
header with the range of bytes being returned and the total number of bytes
possible; the response body then only contains those bytes.

Content-Range: bytes=1024-2047/11576

As an example, middleware that allows returning a content range might look like
the following:

function (ServerRequestInterface $request, DelegateInterface $delegate) : ResponseInterface
    $stream = new Stream('path/to/download/file', 'r');
    $response = new Response($stream);

    $range = $request->getHeaderLine('range');
    if (empty($range)) {
        return $response;

    $size  = $body->getSize();
    $range = str_replace('=', ' ', $range);
    $range .= '/' . $size;

    return $response->withHeader('Content-Range', $range);

You’ll likely want to validate that the range is within the size of the file, too!

The above code emits a Content-Range response header if a Range header is in
the request. However, how do we ensure only that range of bytes is emitted?

By using the SapiStreamEmitter! This emitter will detect the Content-Range
header and use it to read and emit only the bytes specified by that header; no
extra work is necessary!

Mixing and matching emitters

The SapiEmitter is perfect for content generated within your application
— HTML, JSON, XML, etc. — as such content is usually of reasonable
length, and will not exceed normal memory and resource limits.

The SapiStreamEmitter is ideal for returning file downloads, but can lead to
performance overhead when emitting standard application content.

How can you mix and match the two?

Expressive answers this question by providing
ZendExpressiveEmitterEmitterStack. The class acts as a stack (last in,
first out), executing each emitter composed until one indicates it has handled
the response.

This class capitalizes on the fact that the return value of EmitterInterface
is undefined. Emitters that return a boolean false indicate they were unable
to handle the response
, allowing the EmitterStack to move to the next emitter
in the stack. The first emitter to return a non-false value halts execution.

Both the emitters defined in zend-diactoros return null by default. So, if we
want to create a stack that first tries SapiStreamEmitter, and then defaults
to SapiEmitter, we could do the following:

use PsrHttpMessageResponseInterface;
use ZendDiactorosResponseEmitterInterface;
use ZendDiactorosResponseSapiEmitter;
use ZendDiactorosResponseSapiStreamEmitter;
use ZendExpressiveEmitterEmitterStack;

$emitterStack = new EmitterStack();
$emitterStack->push(new SapiEmitter());
$emitterStack->push(new class implements EmitterInterface {
    public function emit(ResponseInterface $response)
        $contentSize = $response->getBody()->getSize();

        if ('' === $response->getHeaderLine('content-range')
            && $contentSize < 8192
        ) {
            return false;

        $emitter = new SapiStreamEmitter();
        return $emitter->emit($response);

The above will execute our anonymous class as the first emitter. If the response
has a Content-Range header, or if the size of the content is greater than 8k,
it will use the SapiStreamEmitter; otherwise, it returns false, allowing the
next emitter in the stack, SapiEmitter, to execute. Since that emitter always
returns null, it acts as a default emitter implementation.

In Expressive, if you were to wrap the above in a factory that returns the
$emitterStack, and assign that factory to the
ZendDiactorosEmitterEmitterInterface service, then the above stack will be
used by ZendExpressiveApplication for the purpose of emitting the
application response!


Emitters provide you the ability to return the response you have aggregated in
your application to the client. They are intended to have side-effects: sending
the response code, response headers, and body content. Different emitters can
use different strategies when emitting responses, from simply echoing content,
to iterating through chunks of content (as the SapiStreamEmitter does). Using
Expressive’s EmitterStack can provide you with a way to select different
emitters for specific response criteria.

For more information:

Source: Zend feed

Logging PHP applications

Every PHP application generates errors, warnings, and notices and throws
exceptions. If we do not log this information, we lose a way to identify and
solve problems at runtime. Moreover, we may need to log specific actions such as
a user login and logout attempts. All such information should be filtered and
stored in an efficient way.

PHP offers the function error_log() to send an error
message to the defined system logger, and the function
set_error_handler() to specify a handler for
intercepting warnings, errors, and notices generated by PHP.

These functions can be used to customize error management, but it’s up to the
developer to write the logic to filter and store the data.

Zend Framework offers a logging component, zend-log;
the library can be used as a general purpose logging system. It supports
multiple log backends, formatting messages sent to the log, and filtering
messages from being logged.

Last but not least, zend-log is compliant with PSR-3,
the logger interface standard.


You can install zend-log using the
following composer command:

composer require zendframework/zend-log


zend-log can be used to create log entries in different formats using multiple
backends. You can also filter the log data from being saved, and process the
log event prior to filtering or writing, allowing the ability to substitute,
add, remove, or modify the data you log.

Basic usage of zend-log requires both a writer and a logger instance.
A writer stores the log entry into a backend, and the logger
consumes the writer to perform logging operations.

As an example:

use ZendLogLogger;
use ZendLogWriterStream;

$logger = new Logger;
$writer = new Stream('php://output');

$logger->log(Logger::INFO, 'Informational message');

The above produces the following output:

2017-09-11T15:07:46+02:00 INFO (6): Informational message

The output is a string containing a timestamp, a priority (INFO (6)) and the
message (Informational message). The output format can be changed using the
setFormatter() method of the writer object ($writer).
The default log format, produced by the Simple
formatter is as follows:

%timestamp% %priorityName% (%priority%): %message% %extra%

where %extra% is an optional value containing additional information.

For instance, if you wanted to change the format to include only log %message%, you could do the following:

$formatter = new ZendLogFormatterSimple('log %message%' . PHP_EOL);

Log PHP events

zend-log can also be used to log PHP errors and exceptions. You can log PHP
errors using the static method Logger::registerErrorHandler($logger) and
intercept exceptions using the static method Logger::registerExceptionHandler($logger).

use ZendLogLogger;
use ZendLogWriter;

$logger = new Logger;
$writer = new WriterStream(__DIR__ . '/test.log');

// Log PHP errors

// Log exceptions

Filtering data

As mentioned, we can filter the data to be logged; filtering removes messages
that match the filter criteria, preventing them from being logged.

We can use the addFilter() method of the Writer

to add a specific filter.

For instance, we can filter by priority, accepting only log entries with a
priority less than or equal to a specific value:

$filter = new ZendLogFilterPriority(Logger::CRIT);

In the above example, the logger will only store log entries with a priority
less than or equal to Logger::CRIT (critical). The priorities are defined by
the ZendLogLogger class:

const EMERG   = 0;  // Emergency: system is unusable
const ALERT   = 1;  // Alert: action must be taken immediately
const CRIT    = 2;  // Critical: critical conditions
const ERR     = 3;  // Error: error conditions
const WARN    = 4;  // Warning: warning conditions
const NOTICE  = 5;  // Notice: normal but significant condition
const INFO    = 6;  // Informational: informational messages
const DEBUG   = 7;  // Debug: debug messages

As such, only emergency, alerts, or critical entries would be logged.

We can also filter log data based on regular expressions, timestamps, and more.
One powerful filter uses a zend-validator
ValidatorInterface instance to filter the log; only valid entries would be
logged in such cases.

Processing data

If you need to provide additional information to logs in an automated fashion,
you can use a ZendLogProcesser class. A processor is executed before the
log data are passed to the writer. The input of a processor is a log event,
an array containing all of the information to log; the output is also a log
, but can contain modified or additional values. A processor modifies
the log event to prior to sending it to the writer.

You can read about processor adapters offered by zend-log in the

Multiple backends

One of the cool feature of zend-log is the possibility to write logs using
multiple backends. For instance, you can write a log to both a file and a
database using the following code:

use ZendDbAdapterAdapter as DbAdapter;
use ZendLogFormatter;
use ZendLogWriter;
use ZendLogLogger;

// Create our adapter
$db = new DbAdapter([
    'driver'   => 'Pdo',
    'dsn'      => 'mysql:dbname=testlog;host=localhost',
    'username' => 'root',
    'password' => 'password'

// Map event data to database columns
$mapping = [
    'timestamp' => 'date',
    'priority'  => 'type',
    'message'   => 'event',

// Create our database log writer
$writerDb = new WriterDb($db, 'log', $mapping); // log table
$formatter = new FormatterBase();
$formatter->setDateTimeFormat('Y-m-d H:i:s'); // MySQL DATETIME format

// Create our file log writer
$writerFile = new WriterStream(__DIR__ . '/test.log');

// Create our logger and register both writers
$logger = new Logger();
$logger->addWriter($writerDb, 1);
$logger->addWriter($writerFile, 100);

// Log an information message
$logger->info('Informational message');

The database writer requires the credentials to access the table where you will
store log information. You can customize the field names for the database table
using a $mapping array, containing an associative array mapping log fields to
database columns.

The database writer is composed in $writerDb and the file writer in
$writerFile. The writers are added to the logger using the addWriter()
method with a priority number; higher integer values indicate higher priority
(triggered earliest). We chose priority 1 for the database writer, and priority
100 for the file writer; this means the file writer will log first, followed by
logging to the database.

Note: we used a special date formatter for the database writer. This is
required to translate the log timestamp into the DATETIME format of MySQL.

PSR-3 support

If you need to be compatible with PSR-3,
you can use ZendLogPsrLoggerAdapter. This logger can be used anywhere
a PsrLogLoggerInterface is expected.

As an example:

use PsrLogLogLevel;
use ZendLogLogger;
use ZendLogPsrLoggerAdapter;

$zendLogLogger = new Logger;
$psrLogger = new PsrLoggerAdapter($zendLogLogger);

$psrLogger->log(LogLevel::INFO, 'We have a PSR-compatible logger');

To select a PSR-3 backend for writing, we can use the ZendLogWriterPsr
class. In order to use it, you need to pass a PsrLogLoggerInterface instance
to the $psrLogger constructor argument:

$writer = new ZendLogWriterPsr($psrLogger);

zend-log also supports PSR-3 message

via the ZendLogProcessorPsrPlaceholder class. To use it, you need to add a
PsrPlaceholder instance to a logger, using the addProcess() method.
Placeholder names correspond to keys in the "extra" array passed when logging a

use ZendLogLogger;
use ZendLogProcessorPsrPlaceholder;

$logger = new Logger;
$logger->addProcessor(new PsrPlaceholder);

$logger->info('User with email {email} registered', ['email' => 'user@example.org']);

An informational log entry will be stored with the message User with email user@example.org registered.

Logging an MVC application

If you are using a zend-mvc based
application, you can use zend-log as module. zend-log provides a
class, which registers ZendLog as a module in your application.

In particular, the zend-log module provides the following services (under
the namespace ZendLog):

Logger::class         => LoggerServiceFactory::class,
'LogFilterManager'    => FilterPluginManagerFactory::class,
'LogFormatterManager' => FormatterPluginManagerFactory::class,
'LogProcessorManager' => ProcessorPluginManagerFactory::class,
'LogWriterManager'    => WriterPluginManagerFactory::class,

The Logger::class service can be configured using the log config key;
the documentation provides configuration examples.

In order to use the Logger service in your MVC stack, grab it from the service
container. For instance, you can pass the Logger service in a controller using
a factory:

use ZendLogLogger;
use ZendServiceManagerFactoryFactoryInterface;

class IndexControllerFactory implements FactoryInterface
    public function __invoke(
        ContainerInterface $container,
        array $options = null
    ) {
        return new IndexController(

via the following service configuration for the IndexController:

'controllers' => [
    'factories' => [
        IndexController::class => IndexControllerFactory::class,

Logging a middleware application

You can also integrate zend-log in your middleware applications.
If you are using
add the component’s ConfigProvider
to your config/config.php file.

Note: if you are using zend-component-installer,
you will be prompted to install zend-log’s config provider when you install
the component via Composer.

Note: This configuration registers the same services
provided in the zend-mvc example, above.

To use zend-log in middleware, grab it from the dependency injection
container and pass it as a dependency to your middleware:

namespace AppAction;

use PsrContainerContainerInterface;
use ZendLogLogger;

class HomeActionFactory
    public function __invoke(ContainerInterface $container) : HomeAction
        return new HomeAction(

As an example of logging in middleware:

namespace AppAction;

use InteropHttpServerMiddlewareDelegateInterface;
use InteropHttpServerMiddlewareMiddlewareInterface as ServerMiddlewareInterface;
use PsrHttpMessageServerRequestInterface;
use ZendLogLogger;

class HomeAction implements ServerMiddlewareInterface
    private $logger;

    public function __construct(Logger $logger)
        $this->logger = logger;

    public function process(
        ServerRequestInterface $request,
        DelegateInterface $delegate
    ) {
        $this->logger->info(__CLASS__ . ' has been executed');

        // ...

Listening for errors in Expressive

Expressive and Stratigility
provide a default error handler middleware implementation,
ZendStratigilityMiddlewareErrorHandler which listens for PHP errors and
exceptions/throwables. By default, it spits out a simple error page when an
error occurs, but it also provides the ability to attach listeners, which can
then act on the provided error.

Listeners receive the error, the request, and the response that the error
handler will be returning. We can use that information to log information!

First, we create an error handler listener that composes a logger, and logs the

use Exception;
use PsrHttpMessageResponseInterface;
use PsrHttpMessageServerRequestInterface;
use Throwable;
use ZendLogLogger;

class LoggingErrorListener
     * Log message string with placeholders
    const LOG_STRING = '{status} [{method}] {uri}: {error}';

    private $logger;

    public function __construct(Logger $logger)
        $this->logger = $logger;

    public function __invoke(
        ServerRequestInterface $request,
        ResponseInterface $response
    ) {
        $this->logger->error(self::LOG_STRING, [
            'status' => $response->getStatusCode(),
            'method' => $request->getMethod(),
            'uri'    => (string) $request->getUri(),
            'error'  => $error->getMessage(),

The ErrorHandler implementation casts PHP errors to ErrorException
instances, which means that $error is always some form of throwable.

We can then write a delegator factory that will register this as a listener on
the ErrorHandler:

use LoggingErrorListener;
use PsrContainerContainerInterface;
use ZendLogLogger;
use ZendLogProcessorPsrPlaceholder;
use ZendStratigilityMiddlewareErrorHandler;

class LoggingErrorListenerFactory
    public function __invoke(
        ContainerInterface $container,
        callable $callback
    ) : ErrorHandler {
        $logger = $container->get(Logger::class);
        $logger->addProcessor(new PsrPlaceholder());

        $listener = new LoggingErrorListener($logger);
        $errorHandler = $callback();
        return $errorHandler;

And then register the delegator in your configuration:

// In a ConfigProvider, or a config/autoload/*.global.php file:
use LoggingErrorListenerFactory;
use ZendStratigilityMiddlewareErrorHandler;

return [
    'dependencies' => [
        'delegators' => [
            ErrorHandler::class => [

At this point, your error handler will now also log errors to your configured


The zend-log component offers a wide set of features,
including support for multiple writers, filtering of log data,
compatibility with PSR-3, and

Hopefully you can use the examples above for consuming zend-log in your
standalone, zend-mvc, Expressive, or general middleware applications!

Learn more in the zend-log documentation.

Source: Zend feed

Notepad++ 7.5.1 new features

Notepad++ 7.5.1 new features/enhancements & bug-fixes:
1. Fix some excluded language cannot be remembered bug.
2. Fix a localization regression bug.
3. Fix the bug that Notepad++ create “%APPDATA%\local\notepad++” folder in local conf mode.
4. Add Visual Prolog language support.
5. Add auto-completion support for batch file (*.bat).
6. Enhance Function List for PHP and JavaScript.
7. Enhance Shortcut Mapper by adding category column.
8. Make double click work for language menu disabling/enabling in preferences dialog.
9. Make double click work to improve file extension movement in Preferences dialog.
10. Fix bug: language menu item is restored back on the wrong zone.
11. Add a spiritual quote.

Included plugins:
1. NppExport v0.2.8 (32-bit x86 only)
2. Converter 4.2.1
3. Mime Tool 2.1

Updater (Installer only):
* WinGup v4.1